The development in children is total. Children are not just physically developing, but they are also growing intellectually and mentally. Children manifest cognitive abilities such as thinking, reasoning, problem-solving and many more. This cognitive development is in stages. We shall talk more about it below.
Phases in cognitive development
Sensory-motor stage. This stage is between zero and two years. This is the stage when the knowledge of the infant concerning the world is completely restricted to the activity of the motor and sensory perception of the infant. The actions of the infants are dependent the motor reactions to the sensory stimuli.
Pre-operational stage. This is the stage in the early childhood development, especially between ages two and about six when the child begins to learn language usage. At this stage, the children do not understand the language logic. They cannot manipulate any information and as well take other peoples’ opinion. They learn the language and use it, verbatim or raw as introduced to them.
Concrete operational stage. This is the stage in the early childhood cognitive development in which the child has a good understanding of intellectual and mental operation. The age bracket for this stage is between the ages of seven to eleven so to say. They do not have the understanding of abstract things or matters, but they can perform semi critical thinking including some mental analysis.
Formal operational stage. This is the stage in the age range of about twelve to adulthood. This stage characterized with the amazing ability to understand and profer solution to abstract issues. Some skills such as systematic mental analysis, critical reasoning, logic analysis are seen to manifest in this stage.
Theory of cognitive development in early childhood stage
Several experts have done a lot of work on the cognitive development in the early childhood. A renown expert and professional called Jean Piaget, who was bagged a doctoral degree just at the age of about twenty-two years, gave the concept of schemas in the cognitive development in children. According to him, schemas are a concept that assists in the organization and the interpretation of information. As people, especially the children in question, have some experiences, this information which is new is then used to do some modification, addition to the existing schemas. In some instances, the new information may be used to completely erase the existing schemas. For an instance, a child that has a schema concerning a kind of animal, such as a dog. And according to the child’s schema, a dog is a four-legged animal. Now, by the time the child come across another animal like a goat, the child may be tempted to call the animal a dog initially. And of course by the time the child in question learns that the animal is not a dog, but a goat, then the child will revise and update the schema for a dog. The child will have to create another schema for a goat. That’s it.